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Raphael Santi or Raphael Sanzio, Ital. Raffaello Santi or Raffaello Sanzio
(14831520)

Raphael Santi or Raphael Sanzio, Ital. Raffaello Santi or Raffaello Sanzio (14831520)

Major Italian Renaissance painter, b. Urbino. In Raphaels work is the clearest expression of the exquisite harmony and balance of High Renaissance composition.
Raphaels father, Giovanni Santi, painter at the court of Federigo Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, first taught him the elements of art. About six years after the death of his father (1494) he entered the workshop of Perugino, whose influence is seen in The Crucifixion and The Knights Dream (both: National Gall., London); Coronation of the Virgin (Vatican); The Three Graces (Chantilly); and the Sposalizio (Brera, Milan). The Colonna altarpiece, representing the Madonna and Saints (Metropolitan Mus.), marks the end of the Perugian period of his work.
The five predella scenes, Agony in the Garden (Metropolitan Mus.), St. Anthony of Padua and St. Francis (both: Dulwich), Procession to Calvary (National Gall., London), and Pietà (Gardner Mus., Boston), give evidence of the new influences of Leonardo, Michelangelo, Masaccio, and, especially, Fra Bartolomeo. Studying the intricacies of anatomy, perspective, and coloring, he achieved a freer, more able, and deeper interpretation than was seen in his earlier work. In Florence (15048) he produced numerous Madonnas that are renowned for their sweetness of expression. His self-portrait (Uffizi) and the penetrating portraits of Angelo and Maddalena Doni (Pitti Palace) are also from this period.
At Rome his style matured, benefiting from Michelangelos influence. In the Vatican, Raphael was wholly responsible for the Stanza della Segnatura (finished 1511); the two largest walls represent, respectively, the School of Athens, portraying the Greek philosophers, and the Triumph of Religion, also called Disputà. On the vault are The Flaying of Marsyas and The Temptation of Eve. The ceiling is devoted to the allegorical figures Law, Philosophy, Poetry, and Theology. Two large lunettes over the windows represent Parnassus and Jurisprudence.
In the Stanza dEliodoro Raphael painted (151114) The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, The Miracle of Bolsena, The Repulse of Attila from Rome by Leo I, and The Deliverance of St. Peter. He also designed the Incendio del Borgo and painted part of it. Other designs for the Vatican include The Battle of Ostia, The Oath of Leo III before Charlemagne, and The Victory of Constantine over Maxentius; the 52 religious subjects covering one ceiling and known as Raphaels Bible were executed by his pupils after his design.
Among the other paintings of his Roman period are the Madonna with the Fish (Prado); Madonna of the Chair (Pitti Palace); the Sistine Madonna (Dresden); Galatea (Farnesina); the Alba Madonna (National Gall. of Art, Washington, D.C.); and the unfinished Transfiguration, completed by Giulio Romano. Portraits of that period include Julius II, long his patron; Baldassare Castiglione (Louvre); Tommaso Inghirami (Gardner Mus., Boston); and Pope Leo X with Two Cardinals.
Having been named (1514) successor to Bramante as chief architect of the Vatican, Raphael also designed a number of churches, palaces, and mansions. For his patron, Leo X, he undertook (1518) a survey of ancient Rome showing the chief monuments. He also designed ten tapestries with themes from the Acts of the Apostles for the Sistine Chapel; seven of the designs are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Raphael was deeply indebted to the sculpture of antiquity for his mythological and biblical figures, and in his interpretation of classical art he achieved a harmony and monumentality emulated far into the 19th cent.


Ajman, 1972, The Fire in the Borgo

Ajman, 1972, The School of Athens

Ajman, 1972, The School of Athens

Ajman, 1972, The Fire in the Borgo

Ajman, 1972, The School of Athens

Ajman, 1972, The Parnassus

Ajman, 1972, Dante

Cambodge, 1983, Dante, Homer and Virgilius

Cambodge, 1983, Poets

Cambodge, 1983, Scientists and philosophs

Cambodge, 1983, Poets

Comoren Islands, 1977, Nobel prize winners

Fujeira, 1968, Baidasare Castiglione

German Federal Republic, 1971, Dante Alghieri

Greece, 1977, Placing the Works of Homer in Achilles' tomb

Greece, 1978, The School of Athens

Guinea, 2007, Tony Estanguet, Aristotle

Italy, 1960, The Fire of Borgo

Italy, 1960, The Fire of Borgo

Italy, 1992, Columbus, Geraclitus and painting

Korea Nord, 1983, The School of Athens

Malta, 1965, Dante Aligheri

Malta, 1965, Dante Aligheri

Malta, 1965, Dante Aligheri

Mexico, 1965, Dante Alghieri

Sao Tome e Principe, 1983, Disputa (Disputation over the Sacrament)

Sierra Leone, 1983, Diogen

Sierra Leone, 1983, Pythagoras, Parmenides and Heraclitus

Sierra Leone, 1983, The School of Athens

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, The Three Beasts

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Pope Celestine V

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Paolo and Francesca

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, The Cerberus

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Dante and Virgil

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Farinata degli Uberti

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Pope Anastasius

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Centaurs

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Pier della Vigna

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Brunetto Latini

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Caiphas

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Dante and Virgil

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Brothers Napoleone and Alessandro degli Alberti

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, The legs of Luzifer

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Cato

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Angel

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Manfred

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Belacqua

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Sordello

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Nino Visconti

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Angel of Peace

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Leath

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Eunoe River

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Dante and Beatrice

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, The Order of Paradise

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, The Empyrean

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Justinian

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Rahab

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Saint Francis

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Cacciaguida

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, The Eagle of Souls

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Saturn

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Jesus Crist

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Saint Peter

USA, 1974, Heraclitus

Vatican, 1965, Dante Aligheri

Vatican, 1986, Pythagoras and Heraclitus

Vatican, 2009, Disputa

YAR, 1968, The School of Athens

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