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Munich
München

MunichMünchen

The settlement was founded as Munichen in 1158 by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, and half a century later it was granted city status and fortified. Initially, bishop Otto von Freising (Freising) and Henry quarreled about the city before the emperor at a Reichstag held in Augsburg. In 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto of Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria. His heirs, the Wittelsbach dynasty would rule Bavaria until 1918. In 1255, the dukedom of Bavaria was split in two, and Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria.

In 1327, the entire city was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt some years later by Louis IV, the ruling Holy Roman Emperor of the time. In 1632 the city was occupied by Gustav II Adolph of Sweden during the Thirty Years' War and following 1705 it was under the control of the Habsburg family for some years. The city's first academic institution, the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, was founded in 1759.

By that time, the city was growing very quickly and was one of the largest cities in continental Europe. In 1806, it became the capital of the new Kingdom of Bavaria, with the state's parliament (the Landtag) and the new archdiocese of Munich and Freising being located in the city. Twenty years later Landshut University was moved to Munich.

Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were built under the reigns of the kings Ludwig I and Maximilian II. These buildings include the Ruhmeshalle and those on Ludwigstraße and Königsplatz, built by architects Leo von Klenze and Friedrich von Gärtner, and the "Bavaria" statue by Ludwig Michael von Schwanthaler.

In 1882 electric lighting was introduced to Munich, and the city hosted Germany's first exhibition of electricity. Nineteen years later the Hellabrunn Zoo opened in the city. After World War I, the city was at the center of much unrest. In November 1918, Communists took power establishing the Bavarian Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) which was put down on May 3, 1919 by the right wing Freikorps, many of whom were later drawn to Adolf Hitler and National Socialism. In 1923 Hitler and his supporters, who then were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic and seize power. But the revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the crippling of the Nazi Party, which was virtually unknown outside Munich. However, the city would once again become a Nazi stronghold when they took power in Germany in 1933. Because of its importance to the rise of Nazism, the Nazis called it Hauptstadt der Bewegung ("capital of the movement"). The NSDAP headquarters were in Munich and many Führerbauten were built around the Königsplatz, some of which have survived to this day.


Bavaria statueIn 1938, the Munich Agreement was signed in the city, ceding the mostly German speaking Sudetenland, previously a part of Czechoslovakia since the end of WWI, to Germany. It was signed by representatives of Germany, Italy, France and Britain. A year later, in 1939, Georg Elser failed with his attempt to assassinate Hitler while the latter was giving his annual speech to commemorate the Beer Hall Putsch in the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich.

Munich was the city where the White Rose (German: Die Weiße Rose), a group of students that formed a resistance movement from June 1942 to February 1943, was based. The core members were arrested following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl.

The city was very heavily damaged by allied bombing during World War II. After American occupation in 1945, Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous and, by comparison to other war-ravaged German cities, a rather conservative plan which preserved its pre-war street grid.

Munich was the site of the 1972 Summer Olympics, during which Israeli athletes were assassinated by Palestinian terrorists (see Munich massacre), where terrorist gunmen from the Palestinian "Black September" group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team. A rescue attempt by the West German government was unsuccessful and resulted in the deaths of the Israeli hostages, 5 of the terrorists, and one German police officer.

Several games of the 1974 Soccer World Cup were also held in the city and in 2006 it will again be host to several games, including the opening match of the next FIFA Soccer World Cup.


Ajman, 1971, Munich, football players

Ajman, 1971, Olympic Village

Ajman, 1971, Panorame of Munich

Ajman, 1971, The New Town Hall

Ajman, 1971, Theatine Church

Ajman, 1971, Plan of Olympic Stadium

Ajman, 1971, Nymphenburger palace

Ajman, 1971, China Pagoda in English Garden

Ajman, 1971, Central Train Station

Ajman, 1971, Löwenbräu Pavilion

Ajman, 1971, Angel of Peace

Ajman, 1971, German Museum

Ajman, 1971, Karlplatz

Ajman, 1971, Maximilianeum

Ajman, 1971, Viktualien market

Ajman, 1971, Octoberfest

Ajman, 1971, New City Hall

Ajman, 1971, Frauenkirche

Ajman, 1971, Clock on the New City Hall

Ajman, 1971, Monument of Ludwig I in Munich

Ajman, 1971, Wittelshacherbrunnen

Ajman, 1971, National Theatre

Ajman, 1971, Propileus

Ajman, 1971, Nymphenburger palace

Ajman, 1971, Glyptothek

Ajman, 1971, Schleissheim Palace

Ajman, 1971, Nymphenburger palace

Ajman, 1971, Olympic Stadium

Belgium, 1971, Frauenkirche and The Diskus thrower

Berlin, 1987/1989, Statue of Bavaria

Bhutan, 1972, The New Town Hall

Burundi, 1974, The New Town Hall

Cambodge, 1972, Towers of Munich

Cambodge, 1975, Munich and Montreal

Cambodge, 1975, Football in Munich

Central African Republic, 1985, Olympic Games Poster and Munich

Chad, 1972, TV-Tower and Weight-Lifting

Chad, 1972, TV-Tower and running

Chad, 1972, TV-Tower and Football

Chad, 1972, TV-Tower and Gymnast

Chad, 1972, TV-Tower and Fencing

Chad, 1972, TV-Tower and Pole vault

Chad, 1972, TV-Tower and Hammer thow

Chad, 1972, TV-Tower and Boxing

Comoren Islands, 1976, Odeonplatz in Munich

El Salvador, 2006, Berlin and Munich

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, Palace of Art

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, National Museum

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, Monument to Ludwig I

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, Statue of Bavaria

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, Marienplatz

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, Nymphenburg palace

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, St. Peter church

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, Olympic Stadium

Equatorial Guinea, 1972, Olympic Stadium

Equatorial Guinea, 1974, Munuch

Fujeira, 1972, Munich 1972, Conrad Adenauer

Fujeira, 1972, Munich 1972, Theatine Church

Fujeira, 1972, Munich 1972, Olympic Tower

Fujeira, 1972, Kiel 1972, Munich City Hall

Fujeira, 1972, Munich 1972

Gambia, 1993, Hugo Eckener and «Graf Zeppelin»

Gambia, 2000, Israel athlete with Olympic torch

Gambia, 2002, Teddy bear with beer

Georgia, 1996, Munich

German Federal Republic, 1948/1952, Frauenkirche

German Federal Republic, 1958, Old Munich

German Federal Republic, 1964/1965, National Theatre

German Federal Republic, 1970, Monument of Maximilian I on Residenz Place

German Federal Republic, 1970, Propyleus

German Federal Republic, 1970, Glyptoteka

German Federal Republic, 1970, Statue of Bavaria

German Federal Republic, 1972, Olympic Stadium

German Federal Republic, 1978, Museum Tower and Cupola

German Federal Republic, 1978, Balloon on Octoberfest, 1820

German Federal Republic, 1987/1989, Statue of Bavaria

German Federal Republic, 1991, Statue of Bavaria

German Federal Republic, 1993, Olympic Stadium

German Federal Republic, 1994, Frauenkirche

German Federal Republic, 1998, Parliament of Bavaria

German Federal Republic, 2003, Market Stalls

German Federal Republic, 2004, Market Stalls

German Federal Republic, 2006, Stadion in Munich

German Federal Republic, 2010, Octoberfest

German Federal Republic, 2011, Old Munich Pinakotec

Germany, 1935, S.A. Man and Feldherrnhall

Germany, 1935, S.A. Man and Feldherrnhall

Germany, 1936, Fuhrerhaus

Germany, 1936, House of Gernan art

Ghana, 1997, Olympic Stadium in Munich

Grenada, 1992, Zeppelin flies over Munich

Grenada Grenadines, 2000, Great Munich Fire, 1327

Guinea, 1972, Futball, Munich

Guinea, 2007, Mark Spitz, Munich

Guinea Bissau, 2003, German Museum

Guyana, 2000, Olympics Stadium

Haiti, 1972, Linsenhoff, Ruska and Munich

Haiti, 1972, Munich, Peters and Keino

Haiti, 1972, Frauenkirche, R. Williams

Haiti, 1972, Bavaria, G. Mancinelli

Haiti, 1972, St. Peter, Nordwig

Haiti, 1972, Angel of Peace, K. Wolfermann

Haiti, 1972, TV Tower, M Spitz

Hungary, 1969, Bavaria

Hungary, 1972, Olympic Stadium

Hungary, 1973, Town Hall

Hungary, 1979, Frauenkirche

Liberia, 1971, Statue of Bavaria

Liberia, 1971, General view of Munich

Liberia, 1971, National Museum

Liberia, 1971, Maximilian's Squere

Liberia, 1971, Propylaeum

Liberia, 1971, Market Stalls

Mali, 1972, Frauenkirche, Football

Mali, 1972, Olympic TV Tower, Judo

Mali, 1972, Propylaen, Hurging

Mali, 1972, Theatinerkirche, Sprinter

Mali, 1973, Munich, ball

Monaco, 1955, Eight Starting Points

Monaco, 1958, Marienplatz

Mongolia, 1978, New City Hall, Footballers

Niger, 1972, National theatre, Boxing

Niger, 1972, New City Hall, Long-jumping

Niger, 1972, Theatinerkirche, Football

Niger, 1972, Propylaen, Running

Paraguay, 1970, Frauenkirche

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, Propileus

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, Statue of Bavaria

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, Airport of Munich

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, Alter Botanical garden

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, National Theatre

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, New City Hall

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, Wittelshacherbrunnen

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, Statue of Bavaria

Ras al-Khaima, 1972, Statue of Bavaria

Rumania, 1972, Buildings of Munich

Rumania, 1972, Olympic Stadium

Rumania, 1972, Olympic Stadium

Rumania, 1985, R. Strauss, Opera Theater in Munich

Senegal, 1972, Torchbearer and Munich

Sharjah, 1966, Statue of Bavaria

Sharjah, 1972, Munich

Sierra Leone, 1991, Munich Botanic Garden

Umm al Quiwain, 1971, Ringer, Bavaria

Umm al Quiwain, 1972, Olympic Stadium

Uruguay, 1972, Arms of Munich

USSR, 1970, Lenin, House in Munich and Brussel

Vatican, 2007, Benedikt XVI, Munich

Vatican, 2007, Benedict XVI in Munich

Vatican, 2007, Benedict XVI in Munich

YAR, 1970, Glyptothek

YAR, 1970, Wittelshacherbrunnen

YAR, 1970, Maximilianeum

YAR, 1970, Maximilian I Joseph's monument

YAR, 1970, Propileus

YAR, 1970, Nymphenburger palace

YAR, 1970, New City Hall

YAR, 1970, Olympic TV Tower

YAR, 1970, Glyptothek

YAR, 1970, Wittelshacherbrunnen

YAR, 1970, Maximilianeum

YAR, 1970, Maximilian I Joseph's monument

YAR, 1970, Propileus

YAR, 1970, Nymphenburger palace

YAR, 1970, City Hall

YAR, 1970, Marienplatz in XIX century

YAR, 1970, Statue of Bavaria

YAR, 1971, National Theatre on coupon

YAR, 1971, National Theatre

Yemen (Kindom), 1969, New City Hall

Austria, 2007.03.01—03, Munich. Arch of Triumph

Estonia, 2007.03.01—03, Munich. Arms of Munich

German Federal Republic, Munchen. Triumph Arch

German Federal Republic, 1958.05.28, Munich. Arm of Munich

German Federal Republic, 1961.11.30, Munchen. Munchen Beer

German Federal Republic, 1971.11.04, Munich. Olympic Stadium

German Federal Republic, 1976.10.03, Munich. Octoberfest

German Federal Republic, 1979.05.06, Munich. Old Town Hall

German Federal Republic, 1990.01.02, Munich. City of beer

German Federal Republic, 1990.10.07, Munchen. Octoberfest

German Federal Republic, 1994.04.14, Bonn. Frauenkirche

German Federal Republic, 1995.02.14, Munich. Town of famous Beer

German Federal Republic, 2003.08.07, Berlin. Sculpture on Market

German Federal Republic, 2003.08.07, Bonn. Sculpture on Market

German Federal Republic, 2004.03.04, Munich. City and train

German Federal Republic, 2004.03.04, Munich. Nymphenburg

German Federal Republic, 2004.03.04, Munich. Olympic Stadium

German Federal Republic, 2004.10.24, Munich. Post centre

German Federal Republic, 2006.03.02, Munich. Panorame of Munich

German Federal Republic, 2010.09.09, Berlin. Drum

German Federal Republic, 2010.09.09, Bonn. Horn

German Federal Republic, 2013.02.28, Munich. Frauenkirche

Lithuania, 2007.03.01—03, Munich. Frauenkirche

USSR, 1990.09.11—16, Kiev. Days of Munchen

Georgia, 2000, Munich

German Federal Republic, 1999, Maximilianium

German Federal Republic, 2002, Old City Hall

German Federal Republic, 2006, Munich

German Federal Republic, 2011, Balloon over Munich

German Federal Republic, 2013, Stamps with Munich

Bavaria, 1913, Octoberfest

Berlin, 1989, Statue of Bavaria

German Federal Republic, 1989, Statue of Bavaria

German Federal Republic, 1989, Statue of Bavaria

German Federal Republic, 1995, Nymphenburg

German Federal Republic, 1996, Old Munich

German Federal Republic, 2004, Ludwig II and Munich

German Federal Republic, 2009, Old City Hall

© 2003-2019 Dmitry Karasyuk. Idea, preparation, drawing up
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